͹ͺ
мվҤѹط
                      ͧ
Թ»Ԯ صѹԮ ԸԮ 鹾ûԮ Ҵ ˹ѧ͸
ҹ˹[ҧ] áҹ˹[ҧ] ʴŢ˹
㹡ó :- 
   ÷Ѵáͧ˹ҹ˹[ҧ] Ѵҹ˹[ҧ] ش ԡ¹  Ẻ
ö Һѡ ڤ.. (.)

                           . ҵڤ
                       . صڵڵҪdzڳ
     [] Էҹ ڵ ҵ ʾھ ҵ  
ҵ ʧڢԻԵ   صڵڵҪ ʹ  ҵµҷ.
ڶ ҵ Ԩ. ҵµ ԨکԹڹԷʹ. ոҵٵҷ
ҵǯ  ǯ, ǯ  ح, ح
 ʵڵ  حʵڵ  ҵ ոҵ.
⻸ҵҷػ  . ڶ  ԷԵ 
ǷԵ:- ոҵٵ ԯҹҵ. ⻸ҵٵ Ҿڸҵ. ⪸ҵٵ
ԻҨҵ. ¸ҵٵ Եڶҵ. ҡʸҵٵ ڼدҵ.
ԭҳҵٵ Ԫҹҵ.
     [] ոҵط¹ڵ ոҵ  .  ոҵ  
͡, ͪڬڵԡ෹   ҵҵµ.  "͵ڶ
ͪڬڵԡ ͵ڶ ". ڶ ͪڬڵԡҵ ʵڵʹڵҹһڹ
¡ڬڵ. ҵ ʧڢʹڵҹһڹ ͹Թڷ¾ڸ. ͪڬڵ
ڨڵڵ ໵ ¡ڬڵҸǨ. Էҹ  ҡ ʵ
ڢ̹ڵҷ صڵ. ڶ ڢ̹ڵ ڸ. Ԥڵ . ڢ̵ڵڵ
ڢ. ڢǵ ڢ. ͪڬڵ ػҷԹڹڵ ¡ڬڵʧڢҵ
ػҷԹڹ. ػҷԹڹ  ï. ï  دҹ  ˵ 
,  ʹڸ ػҷԹڹڻ ͵ڶ ͹ػҷԹڹڻ. ҷԹڹڤԵʹ
 ʾھ໵ ػҷԹڹҵ ʵ "ͪڬڵ ػҷԹڹ" .
     Էҹ  ոҵ ǵڶʹ ʵ ¶շ  ҵҷ
صڵ. ڶ ¶շڵ Ի. ʵ:-   ͪڬڵԡ ոҵ, 
.   ͪڬڵ ڨڵ ڢ ,  ڵ.  ҵҷ
 ͪڬڵԡ ոҵ ǵڶʹ ʹ. Է صڵ ˵:- 
 ͪڬڵ ػҷԹڹ ï ڢ̵ڵšڢ  
ү¡ ⡯.     . Ը  صڵڻ
Է -  ڶاڤ Ե ڶاڤ  ͪڬڵ
ػҷԹڹ ï ڢ̵ڵšڢ   ү¡ ⡯.
 ⻸ҵҷԹԷ - Եڵҷػ  .
     Թ  Ե ˵? ҵԡ.   ҵԡ 
 Իʹ ໵ صڵڶ ˵ڵ һسԵء  ڵھ?
ػطڸ ีھ.   ҹǹ Ԫڬ.  ʸԸҹ
طڸ صڵ ǷԵھ. طڸŹ   ԯ 
ؾھ⾸ ԹڷԵھ. ڻ ԹڷԸҹ طڸ صڵ
ǷԵھ. Թڹู ҵԡáҹ ؤڤԵھ. Ҩ¹һ
ҵԡáҹ ؤڤ໹൹ ʵڵԸ ؤڤ Ըڨ
ԡ ҨԡڢԵھ. ͹ࡹһ Ҩ ʹڵ  
ʪڬ  Ԫڪ س ҹ ҵھ. صڵ ˵ ͯ
"ҷԡࡹ ԡڢع ó بڨԵء ʵڵҡ ؤڤ
ԨکԵ, ҡ ԡ ԨکԵھ".
     ڶ Ǩ  dzڳ ʳҹ  ͡ Ԩ੷⵵
 ʵڵҡ  ҵԡá ؤڤ ԨکԵھ.
͹ػؾھ ҵզ ҵʳԡ ԡࢻԾ˹ ڳڵԡڡ
͹ػؾھحڨ šڢ -   صڵڵҵ  ҡ
ԡ ԨکԵھ. ڻ  ʵԻҹ ʵ.
      ؤڤԵ๹  طڸ ص ͯ ʹʹ
Ǫવ ڨڤڹҤ ʹ ʹ൹ ͵ڵһ ڨ ҹ§
ڹҤ൹ کڵ Գڱҵԡڡ൹ Եⵡʤ൹ ҹ
ԡҵھ. ԡù൹  dzڳʳҹʡʻԨ੷ʹ ҷ
@ԧö:  . . // ()   .. ⻸ҵҷչ Է   .. šڢ
ࡡ⡯ ԡԵ   ԡ ǵ൵:-  
 - ʡ˻ ҵ. ڶ ¶ ԡڶ 
س  ԡڶ ҹҵ " سԳҹ ҵҹ", һ
س೹ ҹڵ " ԡڶ ҵҹ",  
š˻ ҹҵ "  ҵ", һ  ҹڵ "
š˻ ҵ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  .
Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح
ʵ  ոҵٵ.
       ҵ. ڶ ¶ ح 
ھ  حҹ ҹҵ " ھԳҹ ҵҹ", һ
ھԳҹ ҹڵ " ح ҵҹ",   
ҹҵ "  ҵ", һ  ҹڵ " 
ҵ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե  
  ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ 
ոҵٵ.
      ͧڤչ ͤ ҵ. ڶ ¶  ڱ
ء ԪڬԵ ̹  ڱ ҹڵ " ءԡ
Ե", һ ءԡ ҹڵ " ڱ Ե",  
ͧڤ ҹڵ "ҡ ͤ  ҵ", һ  ҹڵ
" ͧڤչ ͤ ҵ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ 
. Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ڵ ˹ء ҵ. ڶ ¶ DZڲ ҳطءڢ
ࡹ ʪ൹ ڸԵ ԻԵ  طءڢҹ ҹڵ "
@ԧö:  طڸ ҸԹԷ ࡵھ
 Ե", һ  ҹڵ " طءڢ Ե",  
˹ءԡ ҹڵ " ڵ ҵ", һ ڵ ҹڵ "
˹ء ҵ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե
ڵ    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح
ʵ  ոҵٵ.
      ʡ ¹ڸԵ . ڶ ¶ ⤨¹ڸ
ճ  ճ ҹҵ " ⤨ ¹ڸ", һ
⤨ ҹҵ " ճ ¹ڸ",   
ҹҵ " ਹ ¹ڸ", һ  ҹҵ " 
¹ڸ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե 
   ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 ոҵٵ.
      ͯʧڦү ͹ڻԵ Ե. ڶ ¶ ڵԡ Եڵ
Եڵ -  ڵԡ ҹҵ " Եڵ Եڵ" һ Եڵ ҹҵ
" ڵԡ Եڵ", -   ͯʧڦ ҹҵ "
ʵڻ෹ ʹ Ե", һ  ҹҵ " ͯʧڦ
Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե  
  ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 ոҵٵ.
      - þڵ ͯչ Ҿڸҹ Ե. ڶ ¶ 
Թ دگ  دگٹ ҹڵ "  Թڸҹ",
һ  ҹڵ " دگٹ Թڸҹ",   ͯչ
@ԧö: - ..  Եڵ ҹҵ " ڵԡ Եڵ", һ
@ڵԡ ҹҵ " Եڵ Եڵ"      .. 
ҹڵ "  Ҿڸҹ", һ  ҹڵ " ͯչ
Ҿڸҹ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե 
   ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 ոҵٵ.
     ͯ ԡ ⤻ڼ ءڢԻԵ Ե, ⤻ڼ ڦ
ءڢԻԵ Ե, ڦ د ءڢԻԵ Ե, د ԯ
ءڢԻԵ Ե, ԯ ԯԡگ ءڢԻԵ Ե, ԯԡگ
ǯ ءڢԻԵ , ǯ ʯ ءڢԻԵ Ե, ʯ
ǯ ԯԵ, ǯ ԯԡگ ԯԵ, ԯԡگ ԯ
ԯ, ԯ د ԯԵ, د ڦ ԯԵ,
ڦ ⤻ڼ ԯԵ, ⤻ڼ ԡ ԯԵ.
     ڶ ¶ ԯҷʭڨ  ˯ ҹڵ
" ػ ػ ءڢԻԵ Ե", һ ػ ػ ҹڵ "
˯ ˯ ԯԵ",   ԡ ҹҵ " ⤻ڼ
ءڢԻԵ Ե",  ⤻ڼ ҹҵ " ڦ ءڢԻԵ
Ե",  ڦ ҹҵ " د ءڢԻԵ Ե",  د
ҹҵ " ԯ ءڢԻԵ Ե",  ԯ ҹҵ " ԯԡگ
ءڢԻԵ Ե",  ԯԡگ ҹҵ " ǯ ءڢԻԵ
",  ǯ ҹҵ " ʯ ءڢԻԵ Ե",  ʯ ҹҵ
" ǯ ԯԵ",  ǯ ҹҵ " ԯԡگ
ԯԵ",  ԯԡگ ҹҵ " ԯ ԯ",  ԯ
ҹҵ " د ԯԵ",  د ҹҵ " ڦ
ԯԵ",  ڦ ҹҵ " ⤻ڼ ԯԵ", 
⤻ڼ ҹҵ "
ԡ ԯԵ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  .
Ե ͯ    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ͯԭڪ   ͯչ ;ڵ Ե. ڶ ¶ ػھҷչ
͹ ڢԵ Թڹǵڵڤҷ  ػھҷչ ҹڵ "
ǵڵڤҷչ ڢԵڵҹ", һ ǵڵڤҷչ ҹڵ " ػھҷ
Եҹ",   ͯչ ҹڵ "ҡ ͹ ͯԭڪ Ե", һ
ͯԭڪ ҹҵ " ͯչ ͹ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե ͯԭڪ    ү¡
⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ǡڡ ү ԡڢ൹ ͡ - ⶡ ڵ Ը Թ๹
Źع ԹԾڸ ص ˷ ԡڢԻԵ Ե. ڶ ¶
dzگػԾ ھŷ  dzگ ҹҵ " ھŷ ػԾڸ",
һ ھŷ ҹҵ " dz௹ ػԾڸ",   Ź
ҹҵ " ǡڡ ػԾڸ", һ ǡڡ ҹҵ " Źع
ػԾڸ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ǡڡ
   ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 ոҵٵ.
     ˷ þڵ ïԻڪڬ  Ե. ڶ ¶
Գڳʹڷҹԡڪþڵ  Ե  
Գڳʹڷҹԡڪþڵ ҹҵ "   Ե", һ 
ҹҵ " Գڳʹڷҹԡڪþڵ  Ե",   ï
@ԧö:  .. ͡Ź
ڪþڵ ҹҵ "  ˷ Ե", һ ˷ ҹҵ "
ïԻڪþڵ  Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե ˷    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ¡ ͹ Թڹ ҹ ;ڵ ڢԳ  Ե.
ڶ ¶ ءڢԡŻ Ť ʻԳ  ءڢԡŻ
ҹҵ " ʻԳ Ť", һ  ʻԳ ҹҵ "
ءڢԡŻ Ť",   ҹ ;ڵ ڢԳ ҹҵ
"  ¡ Ե", һ ¡ ҹҵ " ҹ ;ڵ
ڢԳ  Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  .
Ե ¡    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
      Ԩکڹ ˷­ڨ ǡڡڨ õ Ե.
ͻڻԨکڹ ʡ  ˯  ¹ڸԵ Ե.
ڶ ¶ ŵԡ    ҹҵ " ŵԡ Ե",
һ ŵԡ ҹҵ "  Ե",   ǡڡ˷ҹ
ʡ   ҹҵ " ࡹ Ԩکڹ", һ
 ҹҵ " ǡڡ˷ҹ ʡ   Ԩکڹ".
ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե   
 ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ 
ոҵٵ.
     ˡ ˷  طû ڶ  Ե. ڶ
¶ ⡯ڶ  Ե »Գڱ  ⡯ڶ
ҹҵ "»Գڱ   Ե", һ »Գڱ ҹҵ "
⡯ڶ  Ե",   طû ڶ
ҹҵ "ˡ   Ե". һ ˡ ҹҵ " طû
ڶ  Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  .
Ե ˡ    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ڼ þڵ Թڹ ҹڵ ˷­ڨ ¡ڨ
ػԨک෵ - ھڵ Ե. ڶ ¶ Գڳ⡯ڵ ھ
ʡس  Գڳ⡯ڵ ҹҵ " ʡس ھ
", һ ʡس ҹҵ " Գڳ⡯ڵ ھ
",   þڵ ҹҵ " ڼ ھҹ Ե",
һ ڼ ҹҵ "  þڵ ھҹ Ե".
ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ڼ   
ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ͹ڵ ү ڤ¹ þڵ Ե. ڶ ¶
Եⷳԡ تԵ  Թڹʸԡ  Եⷳԡ ҹҵ
" ԡ Ե", һ ԡ ҹҵ " Եⷳԡ -
Ե",   þڵ ҹҵ " ͹ڵ Ե", һ ͹ڵ
ҹҵ " þڵ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե ͹ڵ    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ͹ڵس ͹ڵڵ ͡ʵ ͹ڵ ڸԵ Ե. ڶ ¶
ҷحکêڪڱš Ծྵ  êڪ  ҷحکêڪڱš
ҹҵ "êڪء  Ծྵ Ե", һ êڪء ҹڵ "
ҷحکêڪڱš Ծྵ Ե",   ͹ڵ ҹҵ
@ԧö:  . Ԩک෵      . Եⷳ
"͹ڵس  ҾڸԵ Ե", һ ͹ڵس ҹҵ " ͹ڵ
ҾڸԵ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե
͹ڵس    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ط ط Ե ԵյԵԵ. ڶ ¶ ҹⷳ 
ҹ  ҹⷳ ҹҵ " ҹ ", һ ҹ
ҹҵ " ҹⷳ ",   ط ҹҵ " ط
Ե", һ ط ҹҵ " ط Ե". ͭ
ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ط    ү¡
⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
      ڡʧڢ ͯڤػھʷ ͹ڵ Ե.
ڶ ¶ ػ ڷԵ ڢԵڵ ʳ˻ڱڵԡ  ػھ
ҹҵ " ڱڵԡ Ե", һ ڱڵԡ ҹҵ "
ػ Ե",   ڡ ҹҵ "  Ե", һ
 ҹҵ " ڡ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ  ոҵٵ.
     ڶاڤ ʡ˾ڵ Ե. ڶ ¶ ҳء ڢԵڵ
ԯԳڱ  ء ҹҵ " ԯԳڱ Ե", һ ԯԳڱ
ҹҵ " ء Ե",   ʡ˾ڵ ҹҵ "
ڶاڤ Ե", һ ڶاڤ ҹҵ " ʡ˾ڵ Ե".
ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ڶاڤ  
 ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ 
ոҵٵ.
       ڻյ Թ ⡯ҷ  ͹ؤ ոҵ
šڢʹ һ   ʵ.
     ûոҵعԷ µ . ˹ڵ ҵ Ԫҵ
Եڵ Ҩ˹ڵ ؾھԸ. ڶ  ʪڬ - dzڳ Ի 
ھ ǡڵ˹ڵ ҹ ʵڵ ҵҹ . Ҥԡ
Ԫҵ .  ǯگ áٯڵ ճ Եڵҹ . áڢ
ضء չ š š ү š - ˹ڵ ͯ Ҩҹ
.  ڨ ҵҹ   صڵ. ھ ǡڵ˹ڵ -
   ҵ ʷڸ  ʾھڻ Ը ˹ڵ ǷԵھ.
     Իٵ ʵԻ. ʹڵ ̵Ի. ʪڬٵ ê. صڵҵ طڷԡصڵ.
յ ໵ Ҥ ҷ  ⪵ҷ ʾ⾻ .
µ dzڳ. ʧ⢵ طڷԡʧ. ҵ  ڱ
ʵҵҷ ʾھһ . ̹ڵ . êڵ һ.
ҵٻڵ dzڳ. Ե⤵ - õڵ. äŹڵ . Գҷ
 ͹ڵ ҷ» Գ . ͹ ͹ڵ آڱڻ
 . ʡڢҵ ؤڤڵ  دԻڻҳ ھ - ʡڢ .
ؤڤڵ  ˯ ԡҵ بڨ. ҵ - §ڡԭڨ . յ
. ⳵ ͹د ʳ˹  ˵ڶԻڻҳ ڻ
 , ˵ڶԻڻҳ   ػ ھ .   ҵ
Թ ůԹüҷ   ҵ.   ͪڬڵԡ
ոҵ   ҵ Թ ǻ ոҵ ڢ̯ šڢ
͡ ոҵҵ ʵ.
@ԧö:  .. ʪڬ     .. š     .. ǡڵڵ
@ . Ե⡵    .. ڻ      . , . 
     [] ⻸ҵعԷҷ ˯ صڵ ǷԵھ. 
⻤ڵҷ Ҿڸʹ .  ǧڤڵ - ⻤
. ʹ . -  ǧڤڵ - ˤ .
ڸڵ ٻҵ ԹԾٻ ڸ. Եڵ ˹ڵҷչԻ
dzڳʳҹʡʻԨ੷ʹ Ԥڤ˵ ҵ ԡҵھҹ.
      :- Ե  ;ڸԵڵ ԵԹڷ»Ծڸ ʡ
໵ Ե. ڸԵڵ Եڵ Ե. ڶ ¶  ໵ 
   ҹҵ "  ໵ Ե", һ  ҹҵ "
 ໵ Ե",    ҹҵ ";ڸԵڵ 
໵ Ե", һ ;ڸԵڵ ҹҵ "  ໵ Ե".
¶  ʷࡹ س ҵ  ҵ ҹҵ "
ʷ Ե", һ ʷ ҹҵ " ҵ Ե",
  Եڵ ҹҵ " ڸԵڵ Ե", һ ڸԵڵ
ҹҵ " Եڵ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ 
. Ե Եڵ    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
      ͡ڶûڻҳ - طû Ե. ڶ ¶ ػʭڪҵ༳ػ
ڷԡ  ڷԡ ҹҵ " ༳ػ - Ե",
һ ༳ػ ҹҵ " ڷԡ Ե",   طû
ҹҵ "  Ե", һ  ҹҵ " طû Ե".
ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե   
 ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ 
Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
@ԧö:  ..  ڵ    .. ڹʹ ڹ. ػԻ
@ .. ڹ ڵ    . ͡ڵûڻҳ
@ .. ༳.... ػԻ
     ؾ ͹Ծ⸡. µڶ µ ҳءگڻóͤڤԪҷ
 ûڻ Ե ʳԵ ڨ, ڱ̡ҷ  ػڻڪڵ,
ڶ  ԯ. ڶ ¶ ػڻҷʹ ڦԵ ء
 ءڢ ػڻҷԻڻ ҹڵ "  ", һ
 ҹҵ " ءڢ ػڻҷԻڻ ", 
  ҳءگҷ ˯ڻ ҹڵ " ؾ ",
һ ؾ ҹҵ "   - ". ͭ
ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ؾ    ү¡
⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ
⻸ҵٵ.
     Ե - óԵ ;ڸԵڵ  ʡ ໵ Ե.
ʹڹԨԵԵ ¡ҹ ˯Ҥ õ ͡ڶóڵ -
ǡڡ˷¡ڼҹ ڵ Ե. ڶ ó ;ڸԵڵʷ -
ԹԨک. Ե  ¶ ڪáů ط ˯ űڱآڱҷչ -
  űڱآڱҷչ ҹڵ " طࡹ ҹ - Ե",
һ ط ҹҵ " űڱآڱҷչ ",   ¡
˯Ҥҹ ǡڡҷչ  ҹڵ " Ե Ե,  
ҹ Ե", һ Ե ҹҵ " ¡ ˯Ҥ õ
ǡڡҷչ ҹ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  
Ե Ե    ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ
ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
      ͤڤʹڵһҷԡ ٻҹ õ ԯ 
ڦõ . ڶ ¶ ط ;ھ šط̡ 
@ԧö:  . ҳءگҷ      .       .. ͡ڶóڻҳ
@ . ;ڸԵ            .....ڱҹ    . ҹ
ҷԡһҹ ҹڵ " ط ڦõ", һ ҷԡһ
ڦùڵ ط ҹҵ " ҷԡһ ڦ",  
ٻҹ ҹڵ "  ڦõ", һ  ҹҵ
" ٻ ڦ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
       ʡ Ե  ڦҷչ  
ڶԹڹ. ڶ ¶ ԷڷԻŵԡԨک ʻح  ʻح
ҹҵ "  ԷڷԻŵԡ Ե", һ ԷڷԻŵԡ ҹҵ
" ʻحڪ  Ե",   ʡ ڦҷ  
ҹҵ "   ", һ  ҹҵ " ʡ
ڦҷ    ". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ ڶԹڹ ڶԹڹ Ҿڸҡ
⻸ҵٵ.
      · ʭڪµ,  ͡ڢԡٻ õ ԯ  ڦõ
. ڶ ¶ طس سůԡٻ  سůԡٻ
ҹڵ " ط Ե", һ ط ҹҵ " سůԡٻ
Ե",   ͡ڢԡٻ ҹڵ "  Ե", һ 
ҹҵ " ͡ڢԡٻ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե     ү¡ ⡯ ਵ
;ҡ ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
      ͤڤʹڵһҷԡ ˵ڶ˵ڶԯԻҷŻҷԯԹʻدүʡ
Եչ. ڶ ¶ ڢԵڵ Ҩ  Ҩ ҹҵ
"  ͪ⬵ڶԵ Ե", һ  ҹҵ " Ҩ ͪ⬵ڶԵ
Ե",   ˵ڶҷԻڻ ҹҵ "  ͪ⬵ڶԵ
Ե", һ  ҹҵ " ˵ڶҷԻڻ ͪ⬵ڶԵ Ե".
ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե    
ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ 
Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
       ػڻڵԻڨ ʵ  Ż Ե
 ԯ. ڶ ¶ ;کԹڹطʹ յáٻ  ٻ
ҹҵ " ط ʹڵԯ", һ ط ҹҵ " ٻ ʹڵԯ",
  ҵ ҹҵ "  Ż Ե 
", һ  ҹҵ "  Ż Ե ҵ
". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե  
  ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
     ԧڦҳԡ · ʭڪµ,  ʻ õ ԯ  ڦõ
. ڶ ¶ ٵԷԵ Իڻԡ  Իڻԡ ҹҵ " ٵԷ
Ե", һ ٵԷ ҹҵ " Իڻԡ Ե",   ʻد
ҹڵ " ԧڦҳԡ Ե", һ ԧڦҳԡ ҹҵ " ʻ
Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե ԧڦҳԡ
  ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ
 Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
     ԡ ͯԡʹڸչ ;ڪԨڨ Ҹҹ յʵʹڸ Ե.
ڶ ¶ žڪ ͡  ͡ ҹҵ "  ;ڪԵ
Ե", һ  ҹҵ " ͡ڢ ;ڪԵ Ե",  
յʵʹڸ - ҹڵ "ԡ  ;ڪԵ Ե", һ ԡ ҹҵ
" յʵʹڸ ;ڪԵ Ե". ͭ ڨǡڢԵ
 . Ե ԡ    ү¡ ⡯
ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ ⻸ҵٵ.
     صڵ ǵڶ ;ڵ Ե. ڶ ¶ ڷԡ ڢԵ 
dz  dz ҹҵ " ڷԡ ", һ ڷԡ
ҹҵ " dz ",   ǵڶ ҹҵ " صڵ
Ե", һ صڵ ҹҵ " ǵڶ Ե". ͭ
ڨǡڢԵ  . Ե صڵ    ү¡
⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ  Ҿڸҡ
⻸ҵٵ.   ҵ   ⡯ ⻸ҵ ʹڸ
صڵ.
     ⻸ҵعԷ  Ԩڨ Ծھ   .
ڸҷػ  . ҷչ ҡ. ¶  ʪڪԡڢһ,
Ը  ڶ, §ڡԭڨ  . ػ  . ҹյ
үҷ Եطҹ. ͹ڵԡڢҹյ  ͻڻڵҹ ʷҹ.  
ҵ ڻԹʡطʹڸáطҷչ Ը һҹ
ԯҹ.
     [] ⪸ҵعԷ ൪ʹ .   ڵ
⪤. ҵ سҡ.   ڵ Ҥ. ڵ
ڱ.   ڵ . ¹ ҵ ¹  - ⪤൹
ػڻ൹. ʹڵڻյ   ʹڵڻ, ͡ԡҷǹ 
@ԧö:  .....ʹڸ. ػԻ         .. -ʷ  ʵ
˵. ¹  µյ ¹  -   µ, - Թڷǡŵ
Żԡڢ ԵԵҷǭڨ - һسҵ. ¹  Ա˵յ ¹  -
ػڻ൹   ˵,   ؤڤ  յ ڷ
ʵ⸵ʻڻյڷҷŻ dzگҵڨ ڨʵ. ¹ 
ԵյԵԵ  Գ کյ ๵ Ե  ͷҷ յ 
ҹҷ Ե  ԯڪҷ Ե  ھڡؼҳԵҷ 
Իҡ ک, ҷǹ  ǡ کյ ͵. ͵ڶ   
⪸ҵ دҹ, ک د.  ǵڶ dzڳ. -
     Է  ԡԸҹ:- Ը ԡڢ "¹ ʹڵڻ,  
 ү¡ ⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ ԻҨҡ
⪸ҵ" ԡõ. "¹ µ, ¹ Ա˵, ¹ ԵյԵԵ
 Գ ک,    ү¡ ⡯
ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ ԻҨҡ ⪸ҵ" ԡõ.
  ҵ   ҡ  ص ͵ڶ,  һҹ
ԯ.
     ⪸ҵعԷ  Ԩڨ ڪ ػҷ ͤڤ
ڤ . ʡԡڤҷػ  . ʧڡäڤյ  ʧڡڲԵ
һ ͤڤ äڤ. Թڷڤյ ʹͤڤ. ͤڤʹڵ⻵  
յکԵڤҹ -  ʹڵ. ʹڵ⻵ ҵ. ʹڹԨʹڵ⻵
ԯ ʹڵ. ػ  .   ҵ
໵ڤԡڻԹʡڤԹ¤ڤҷ Ը һҹ ԯ.
     [] ¸ҵعԷ ¹ʹ .   ڵ
¤. Եڵ ٻҵ ԹԾٻ Ե. طڸڤ ҵҵ
@ԧö:  .. -ʷ  ʵ      . µ. ػԻ    .. ԻԵҷ...
@ .. dzڳ           .. յڨԵڤҹ
ؤڤԡڡҷԻǵڵ - طڸ ˹ҵ. ⸤ ҵҵ
بڨûҷԹó  ˹ҵ. بک ҵҵ ͹ڵҹ ҵ.
⡯ ҵҵ ͹ڵҹ ͹ҵ. ͧڤڤҹ ҵҵ
ժҹù ʡ ͧڤڤҹ ͹ʯ ԭڪóҷԹԾھڵ
ҵ. ʵڶҵҵ ʹڸԾڸҹ ڵ Թڷڵ  ǵڵҵ.
áҵҵ ù  ˷ Źҵ. - ػڻšҵҵ ˷
ػڻүҵ. ʵ ͹⵻ʹԡ ʵ
Թԡڢԡ. ͵ڶ   ʾ دҹ, ʻ
Եڵدҹ. ڶ dzڳ.
     Է  ԡԸҹ:- Ը ԡڢ طڸڤҷ  طڸ
ҷʹ Ԥڤ˵ "طڸڤ ҵ    ү¡
⡯ ਵ ;ҡ ح ʵ Եڶҡ ¸ҵ"
ԡõ. ػ  .  һҵ  ⡯ ͹ؤ
ҵ Ը һҹ ԯ.
     ¸ҵعԷ õڶ ҵҵ õڶ Ҥ ҵ.
کصڵ÷ڢػ  . ê ҵҵ  હ ê. ê
ҵҵ êԵ طڸ ê . յҵ յصدҹ յˡڵ
دԵ. سҵ سصدҹ س˾ˡڵ دԵ.
Եڵҵ ڷҵ ءҵ. - ͸ڵҵ ҵ. ҵ
̾ˡڵ دԵ.  ; dz  ˵,  ͵
͸ǨڵԻ . ҵҵ ª ػ ¹ҵ. ڢҵҵ
͹ڵ ڢԡ» ڢ˹دԵ ҵ. ػڳҵҵ ҵ.
ڨ  ڢҵ, ʷʹ   Ե. dzگҵҵ
@ԧö:  . ؤڤԡڡҷ...     .. Źҵ     .. ڷ ءҵ
Ż  ͭ  ࡹ ڱʳ๹ دһԵ ҵ.
Ըٻҵҵ ժڵࡹ دһԵ ҵ. ҹ  dzگԸٻҹ
͹ػڻڹڻ ҵ ػڻ෹ڵ, ػڻڹڻ ǵ൹ڵ.   ҵ Ը
 Ҥ ໵  ҵ һҹ ԯ.
     [] ҡʸҵعԷ ͻڻԦگ  ʵյ ҡ.
ҡ ҡ ڵ ҡʤ. ͦگµ ͦ. ͦ ͦ
ڵ ͦ. õ ͹ڵ.   ڵ ä. ڼد
յ  ʯ. ڳکԷڷڵҷ   ʹ.
ڶ ڳکԷڷڵ ڳ Էڷ   ڼد.
ػ  . ¹ҵ ¹ ù ͵ Եҷ ͪó
ͪõ, ͹ ʵ. µڶҵ  ͹طûʧڢ ͡
͵ ؾھԸ ͪó ԯ. ¹ҵ ¹ ù ʾھ໵ Իڡ
ʯ һڹ ԡڢ,  طû  ڤ ԷڶԨçڤڵ
Էڷ  ڼد ʯ ҡʸҵٵ ǷԵھ.   ҵ
͵ڶ ڵ ʹڵ عڵ ͯԹڵ ڵùڵ Է ʾھ
һҹ ԯ.
     áҡʸҵعԷ ڼد  յ  
ʯ ԵڵԩԷڷүԷڷҷԡ ǷԵھ. Թ  ҡ ԡ
ùڵ ءڡڨڬҹҹ ػڻڪڵ  Ե.
     [] ԭҳҵعԷ ڢԭҳʧڢҵ ҵ ڢԭҳҵ.
ػ  . Ե   ҵ ԤڤԵ ͯ
ҵ ԤڤԵ ˹ڵ. ? ¸ҵؤڤ೹ 
⼯ھҵ Ե ˵, ⻸ҵҡʸҵؤڤ೹ ҵ,
ԭҳҵؤڤ೹  èԡکҨԡڵ ⹸ҵ Ե ˵.
ڢԭҳҵҷ ص Ҥ,   Ե ʵھ.
ڢԭҳҵؤڤ೹   ٵ ڢظҵ ٵ ٻҵ
 Ե ˹.  ʵԭҳҵҷԤڤ೹ ʵҵҷµ
ͯʻ Ե ˹ڵ.   ҵ ٻԤڤ  ˵, ʵڵ
ٻԤڤ, ҵ  ٻԤڤ  ٻԤڤ. Ե ͱಡҷ
ҵ ٻԤڤ, ͱڲҵ ٻԤڤ˵ ٻٻԤڤ  ˵.
ٻٻ ڨڢڸ ʵھ, -  ˵ ءڢʨڨ, دһԡ
 طʨڨ, Թڹ ͻڻǵڵ øʨڨ, ڻҹ - 
ڤʨڨڵ Է ʨڨҹ ͯʸҵʹ Թԯ ԡڢ 
˵ڵ ڶ ໵ Ԥ Եڵ ǷԵھ.
     [] Էҹ ص©ڡ ʹ ͻһ  ҵµҷ.
ڶ آҵ ءڢҵٵ »ڻҷǵڶءҹ آءڢҹ ʻڻԻڢʹ
ؤ̡ Եҹ. آ  ءڢ Ի, ءڢ آ. µڵ ࢹ
Եҹ, ڵ ءڢ õ. µڵ ءࢹ Եҹ, ڵ آ õ.
ʸҵ ʸҵٵ Էڻ  ؤ̡ . ʭ
 Ի,  . µڵ ʹ Եҹ,
ڵ  õ. µڵ ʹ Եҹ, ڵ 
õ.
     ໡ڢҸҵ ԪڪҸҵٵ Է    - ԡڢʹ ؤ̡
. ڻ ˵ ٵڵ ԡڢ ˵. ڶ آءڢҵؤڤ೹
ڻصڵ ԭҳҵ ǵڶٵ ¸ҵ ٵ ⼯ھҵ
 Ե ˹ڵ. ʸҵؤڤ೹ ڻصڵ ԭҳҵ
@ԧö:  ..    ʵ    .. ҹ     .. 
Ե ˵. ԪڪҸҵؤڤ೹ ҵ Ե. ໡ڢҸҵؤڤ೹
ڢʵҹԭҳҵ⹸ҵ  ǵڶٵ
ڢظҵٻҵҷ  Եҵ  ͯʻ ҵ Ե ˹ڵ. Էҹ
  ҵ ٻԤڤ˵ҷ ʾھ ˯ صڵ ǷԵھ.
ڻ ͡ ԡڢ  ˵ڵ ڶ ໵ Ԥ Ե ˵յ
ǷԵھ. ڶ  آҵ,  ԡ ҵڵҷչ ˯ صڵ.
     [] ©    ǵڶء  ʡ .
ڶ ʡ ʹڸ صڵ ҵ ҵ, Եڡʵ .
ǵڶء ʹڸ  ҵ ҵ, Ǩøҹ .
һҷصڵ ҵ һҷҵ, һҷԵڡʵ . һ
ҵ һҷҵ, Ҧҵǵڶء Ԧʵ . һصڵ
ҵ Ҹҵ, Եڡʵ .  ҵ Ҹҵ,
ʵڵʵ - . ڻ ˯ ͹Ҥڵ  ͵ڶҷҤ
ǷԵھ:- ʹڵ ͵ ʵ, ʹ  ͵ ʵڵҹڵ .
 šڢ سһԻڢšڢ . ʹڵ ؾྤ
ʡʹڵ سԷڸʹ . ءڢµڨػҹ, Ԧҹҵ
ǷԵھ. ๡ڢ بڨ  ԡڢڵڵ ,  ԡڢڵڵ
ڬҹ, ʾھҡ ԡڢڵڵ ʾھ. ๡ڢصڵ ҵ
๡ڢҵ, ๡ڢԵڡʵ . ๡ڢ ҵ ๡ڢҵ,
ʾھһ ʵ . ;һҷصڵ ҵ ;һҷҵ,
;һҷԵڡʵ . ;һ ҵ ;һҷҵ, ڵµ
. һصڵ ҵ Ҹҵ, Եڡʵ . 
ҵ Ҹҵ. سµ .
@ԧö:  .. ʵڵʹʵ
     [] Էҹ  ǵڶ ʵ ڶ  ҵٵ Ҫ
÷ڸ. ڶ ص⵵ ڻ¤ʹ ص.  Ե⡵ҷչ
صڵڶ. յ ี ءڢ໵. ҵ ҳԻڻҷ Ҹ
ءڢػڻҷ.  . ʹڵ ͵ҵ ʹ. ʹ
ʹ. ʹҵ گ. ʹҵ Ǧگ. ʾھڶ ػʤह -
 DZڲԵ. ػ˹ڵ ൹ҵ ػ,  ػ ٻ.
     ڵ¹ڵ ͵ҵ ڵ. ڵ¹ҡ ڵ¹. ڵ
Ե ڵڤ  ڵԵڵ. һ෹ صڵ ਵ
صڵ صڵ. ͵ڶ    ػûڻڵһ
ͻڻһڻڵһ - ڵ Ե, ک ͻڻһڻڵ.
     س¹ڵ ͵ҵ س. س¹ҡ س¹. س
Ե سڤ  سԵڵ.  صڵ ਵ صڵ
صڵ. Ըһ  ػûڻ ǷԵ. µڶһ 
ҹ ڵ سҵ صڵʹڶ صڵ.
     ͵ڶ  Ե ʵػ ػڻڪ ʧڢػ. µڶ ػڻ⹻
. һ  ʵ ػڻ  Թڷ, 
Ե. »  . ͵ڶ  ؾھԸ  ʾھʧڤԡ 
Թڹ . ҵؤڤ೹  һҷҸҵ» Ե.
ҵ   Ե Ե ǻ ͵ Եҵ  ǵڶ
ʾھʧڤԡ. ໵  һҷҸҵ  ʾھһ
ҵҵ  Թڹ . ๡ڢҵؤڤ೹һ
;һҷҸҵ Ե. ๡ڢҵ  Ե Ե
ڻ Եڵ ڶһ ʾھʧڤԡ. ໵ ;һҷҸҵ
 ๡ڢҵٵ  Թڹ .
@ԧö:  . ʾھڶ  ػʤह, . ʾھڶ  ػʤह      . ͻڻһڵһ
        ҵ ԤڤԵ ͯ ҵ ԤڤԵ
˹ڵ. ʾھһ   ҵ ҵ Ե Ե ž໵ھ -
ͯ ҵ ˹ڵյ Գڳ ڡҹ ʹ ͯ ˹ڵ. ڻ
ͤڤ˵ ࡡ  صڵ - ͯ ͯ  ʾھҹԻ
ҹ ͯʡҹ ͡ڬ ʧڢԻԵһ - ͯ ˹ڵյ ǷԵھ.
Ե  صڵڵҪ ʸҵ Ǩ,  ԡҵ ڶ
ʹ - ⵵ ǷԵ.
                     صڵڵҪdzڳ ԯԵ.
                          -------------



öҺѡ ˹ -. http://84000.org/tipitaka/atthapali/read_th.php?B=54&A=1401 The Pali Atthakatha in Roman :- http://84000.org/tipitaka/atthapali/read_rm.php?B=54&A=1401 ҹö :- http://84000.org/tipitaka/attha/attha.php?b=35&i=114 ͤûԮѺǧ :- http://84000.org/tipitaka/read/r.php?B=35&A=2064 ûԮѺѡ :- http://84000.org/tipitaka/read/pali_read.php?B=35&A=2068 The Pali Tipitaka in Roman Character :- http://84000.org/tipitaka/read/roman_read.php?B=35&A=2068 úѭûԮ http://84000.org/tipitaka/read/?index_35

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