The Pārāyana Vagga

1. Vatthugāthā

The Story.

976. A brahmin of Kosala learned the vedas
Attained no-thingness and came south.

977. During the reign of Aalaka in the Assaka country
He lived on the bank of Godāvari eating leaves and fruits

978. There was a huge village to support him
And out of its income he peformed a sacrifice.

979. On his return after peforming the sacrifice,
Another brahmin entered his hut.

980. Tired, thirsty, with unbrushed teeth and dusty hair,
He approached and begged for five hundred coins.

981. Bāvari seeing him prepared a seat,
Inquired about his health and said:

982. ’Whatever I had to offer is spent,
This is the truth, I haven’t five hundred coins’

983. "If this offering is not made,
May your top split in seven on the seventh day."

984. The crafty one cursed and frightened him
Bāvari hearing those words became unhappy

985. He emaciated without food, shot with the arrow of grief.
In that condition he could not concentrate.

986. A god saw him frightened and unhappy,
Desiring his good, approached and said thus:

987. "He does not know the top or its splitting,
Is crafty and only wants money" .

988. "O! good one, tell me,
The top and its splitting"

989. "I too do not know the the top and its splitting,
This knowledge, indeed belongs to the winners."

990. "Then, O! god, tell me, who knows,
About the top and its splitting."

991. "In the past, there was a world leader in Kapilavatthu,
A bright son of the Sākyas, in the lineage of Okkāka.

992. Brahmin, he is enlightened, gone beyond all things,
Powerful with higher wisdom and wise about all things
And is realeased with the destruction of all endearments.

993. He is all enlightened, blessed, wise, and preaches the Teaching.
Approach him and ask, he will tell you."

994. Bāvari hearing the word ’all enlightened’ became very happy,
His grief faded and joy arose to him.

995. Bāvari pleased and over joyed asked that god,
"In which state, village or hamlet, is this leader of the world.
We like to worship the noble, enlightened two footed one"

996. "The wise desireless son of the Sākyas is in Sāvatthi, in Kosala.
He is wise and knows the splitting of the top"

997. Then he addressed his learned pupils all brahmins.
"Come young men, listen to my words, .

998. Now the all enlightened one is born in the world,
It is something rare, go to Sāvatthi and see the noble two footed one."

999. "O! brahmin, seeing him, how should we know, whether he is enlightened,
Tell us how we should know it"

1000. "The marks of a Great Man are told in the Vedas,
There are thirty two of them told in order

1001. Whoever has these marks on his body,
Has two alternative behaviours

1002. If he leads a household life, would be a world leader
And would rule rightfully, without any weapons.

1003. If he leaves the household and becomes homeless
Would dispel darkness, become all enlightened and most noble.

1004. First mentally ask my birth, clan and marks of a Great Man,
Then ask about the top and its spllitting.

1005. Enlightened Ones can uncover the covered,
Mentally asked questions would be explained verbally."

1006. The sixteen pupil brahmins of Bāvari,
Ajita, Tissametteyya, punnaka, Mettagu,

1007. Dotaka, Upasiiva, Nanda, Hemaka,
Todeyya and Kappa and Jatukanni the wise one

1008. Badrāudha, Udaya, Posala,
Wise Mogharājā and the great sage Pingiya.

1009. Each with a following and all famous,
Wise concentraters who knew their past births.

1010. They all worshipped Bāvari, circumbulated him
And turned northwards with braided hair. in antelope hide skin dress.

1011. From Aālaka first to Mahiisa, then Udena,
To Gonadda, Vediisa, Vanasavhya,

1012. To Kosambi, Sāketa, and the noble city Sāvatthi
Setavya, Kapilavatthu and Kusinārā,

1013. To Pāvā, Boghanagā, Vesāli and Magadha,
And to the pleasant monument Pāsānaka.

1014. Like the thirsty in search of cool water,
Or like a merchant looking for great gain,

Like those overcome by the heat, looking for a shade,
They hurriedly ascended the rock.

1015. The Blessed One that moment was preaching,
Like a lion roaring in the forest.

1016. Ajita saw the shining all enlightened one,
Like the completed moon on the fifteenth day.

1017. Seeing all the marks on his body,
Pleased and standing on a side, asked the questions mentally.

1018. "Of our teacher, tell the age, clan and marks of a Great Man.
How learned is he in the Vedas, and how many brahmins does he teach".

1019. "His age a hundred and twenty years and Bāvari by clan,
Has three marks on the body, and is perfect in the three vedas

1020. He instructs five hundred brahmins
In Grammar, History,and the roots and meanings of words".

1021. "Tell the marks on noble Bāvari’s body,
And how is his greed, may we be not left in doubt

1022. "Can cover the face with the tongue, has hair between the brows,
The private parts of the body are enclosed in a bag, young men know these".

1023. Hearing these replies to unheard questions,
People with clasped hands consider with feelings.

1024. ’Which god, Brahmā, Inda or Sujampati
Asks these questions mentally, to whom are the replies’

1025. "Bāvari asks the top and its splitting,
May the Blessed One dispel the doubts of the sages".

1026. "Know ignorance as the top and science as splitting the top,
Endowd with faith, mindfulness, concentration, interest and effort"

1027 The young men thoroughly satisfied and full of feelings,
Arranged their robes on one shoulder, and put their heads at the feet of the Blessed One.

1028. "Good sir, the brahmin Bāvari and his pupils,
Worship the feet of the wise one with pleasure"

1029. "May Bāvari and his pupils be with appeased minds,
May you all live long.

1030. If Bāvari or you have any questions to ask,
Now is the time to ask them"

1031. Permission granted by the all Enlightened One,they sat with clasped hands,

And Ajita asked the first queston.

2. Ajita Mānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Ajita.

1032. Venerabe Ajita asked:

"With what is the world enveloped and why is it not evident.

How many pollutions are stated, and what is the great fear."

1033. The Blessed One said:

"The world is enveloped in ignorance, negligences of the sense doors are not evident

Desires are the pollutions and unpleasantness is the great fear."

1034. Venerable Ajita said:

"Hearing is always through the ears, how are the streams stopped

Tell the restraint and the stopping of the streams"

1035. The Blessed One said:

"All streams should be checked mindfully

I declare their restraint through wisdom."

1036. Venerable Ajita said:

"Venerable sir, wisdom, midfulness and name -and -matter,

How do these get destroyed"

1037. The Blessed One said:

"Ajita, when this question is asked I tell you,

How name-and-matter gets destroyed remainderlessly

When consciousness ceases, it gets destroyed".

1038. Venerable Ajita said:

"Sir, in this good Teaching, may I know the clever behaior,

Of the trainer and the ordinary man"

1039. The Blessed One said:

"Do not be greedy for sensuality and do not soil the mind

Be clever in all things, and lead the holy life mindfully."

3. Tissametteyyamānavapucchā.

Questions of the young man Tissametteyya

1040. Venerable Tissametteyya said:

"In this world, who is contented, and has no inhibitions

Who will not be soiled in the middle as well as at the two ends.

And who is said to be the Great Man that has gone beyond the streamstress."

1041. The Blessed One said:

"The bhikkhu leads the holy life, free of greed and always mindful,

When his estimations cease, he has no inhibitions

1042. He knowing both ends is not soiled in the middle.

He is the Great Man gone beyond the streamstress."

4. Punnakamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Punnaka.

1043. Venerable Punnaka said:

"O! non-wavering one, who sees the root of things, there is a question to ask,

Why do sages, men, warriors and brahmins

Make offerings to gods in various ways"

1044. "Whoever man, sage, warrior or brahmin makes an offering,

Does so drenched in decay, expecting another birth."

1045. Venerable punnaka said:

"Venerable sir, how could a man, a sage, a warrioor or brahmin

Be diligent in an offering to overcome birth and death

1046. The Blessed One said:

"Wishing, extolling, offerings are made for the gain of sensual desires,

Those making offerings with the attachnent ’to be’ do not overcome birth and decay."

1047 Venerable Punnaka said:

"Venerabe sir, If they did not overcome birth and decay making offerings,

Which god or man would overcome birth and decay."

1048. The Blessed One said:

"If someone has no inhibitions for anything about this world or the hereafter,

Is appeased, passionless, without confusion and wishes,

He has overcome birth and decay."

5. Mettagumānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Mettagu.

1049. Venerable Mettagu said:

"Thinking the Blessed One is perfectly developed, I ask.

How does unpleasantness arise in the world for varied matter."

1050. The Blessed One said:

"Mettagu asks how unpleasantness arises, I will tell as I know.

On account of endearments arise unpleasantness in the world of varied matter.

1051. He who makes endearments unknowingly, comes to unpleasantness again and again...
Therefore the wise do not make endearments, seeing it as the birth and development of unpleasantness."

1052. Venerabe Mettagu said:
"All our questions were answered, we have something more to ask,
How do the wise cross the flood of birth,decay,grief and lament,
May it be told as the Blessed One experienced."

1053. The Blessed One said:
"I honour that Teaching which is here and now, and not hearsay,
Those who abide mindfully knowing the Teaching
Overcome the attachments to the world"

1054. Venerabe Mettagu said:
"I too take pleasure in the sage’s noble Teaching
Knowing which if one abides, would overcome the attachments to the world"

1055. The Blessed Oe said:
"Dispel interests and settlements in whatever you know,
Above, below, across or even in the middle and do not think of them.

1056. The bhikkhu who abides mindful and diligent to give up selfish clingings,
Overcomes birth, decay,grief and lament and knowing ends unpleasantness here and now".

1057 Venerable Mettagu said:
"I delight in the words of the great sage, Gotama without substratum for being, is perfected
That the Blessed One knows this Teaching, shows he has dispelled unplasantness

1058. If it was not for your essential advice, I would not have dispelled unpleasantness
Great Man I worship you for giving the profitable advice"

1059. The Blessed One said:
"If a perfected brahmin is completely detached from sensual thoughts
He indeed has crossed the floods,pulled out the arrow and is free of doubts

1060. He is a man perfected knowing, giving up attachments ’to be’ and ṅot to be’
Free of greed, unconfused, and desireless, I say he has crossed birth and decay"

6. Dhotakamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Dhotaka.

1061. Venerable Dhotaka said:
"Great sage, I desire your words
For a training in quietness and internal appeasement."

1062. The Blessed One said:
"Then Dhotaka, exert and be clever and mindful here itself
And train to develop quietness and internal appeasement"

1063. Venerable Dhotaka said:
"Among gods and men I see those behaving in the sphere of no-thingness,
With doubts I worship them, may the king of gods dispel my doubts"

1064. The Blessed One said:
"Dhotaka, I’m not going to dispel doubts in this world,
Learning the noble Teaching, you should cross the great flood."

1065. Venerable Dhotaka said:
"O Brahmā, advice me with compassion in the Teaching of seclusion,
So that I may abide appeased, unattached, unhurt like space."

1066. The Blessed One said:
"I honour that appeasement, which is here and now and not hearsay
Knowing which if one abides, would overcome the attachments to the world."

1067. Venerable Dhotaka said:
"I too take pleasure in the in the sage’s noble Teaching.
"Knowing which if one abides would overcome the attachments to the world."

1068. The Blessed One said:
"If you know of anything above, below, across or even in the middle,
Know them as bonds and do not crave ’to be’ or ṅot to be’.

7. Upasiivamānavapucchā

Questions of the youngṃan Upasiiva

1069. Venerable Upasiiva said:
"O! king of gods, it is imposssible that I cross the great floods without help,
Render some help so that I may cross the great flood"

1070. The Blessed One said:
"Mindfully touch the sphere of no-thingness
And realizing there is nothing cross the floods.
Dispel sensuality, do not think,with the destruction of craving see there is nothing for self".

1071. Venerable Upasiiva said:
"One free of greed for all sensuality, giving up thinking supported on no-thingness
Attains the highest, the release from perceptions, does he stay there without proceeding.

1072. The Blessed One said:
"One free of greed for all sensuality, giving up thinking supported on no-thingness
Attains the highest, the release from perceptions, he stays there without proceeding"

1073 Venerable Upasiiva said:
"O! All Seeig One, does he stay there long not proceeding,
Released, does he develop conscious like that"

1074. The Blessed One said:
"Fire thrown about by the wind, goes out of recognition ,
Likewise the sage released from ṅame’ goes out of recognition."

1075. Venerable Upasiiva said:
"Gone out of recognition, is he not there, or is he in well being for ever,
May the sage explain this, as he has undeerstood it."

1076. The Blessed One said:
"Gone out, he cannot be reckoned, the words he was spoken about are not present,
All things destroyed, the words are also destroyed."

8. Nandamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Nanda.

1077. Venerable Nanda said:
"People say there are sages in the world, of these
Which one is the sage, the one accomplished in knowledge or in life".

1078. "Nanda, not through a view,hearsay, or knowledge does a sage become clever,
I say, that sages abide unarmed, unconfused and wishless."

1079. Venerable Nanda said:
"O! Blessed One, there are recluses and brahmins who declare purity,
Through views, virtues and various other ways
Abiding thus, how do they overcome birth and decay."

1080. The Blessed One said:
"Whoever recluses and brahmins declare purity,
Through views, virtues, and various other ways
I say, they do not overcome birth and decay, however long they abide like that."

1081. Venerable Nanda said:
"If the venerable one says, the recluses and brahmins declaring purity,
Through views, virtues and various other ways do not cross the flood,
Which man or god overcomes birth and decay.

1082. The Blessed One said:
"I do not say that all recluses and brahmins are hemmed in birth and decay,
Those that give up views, hearsay, experiences and all other things,
And thoroughly knowing craving become desireless, are the ones that cross the floods."

1083. Venerable Nanda said:
"I am pleased with the words of the great sage, Gotama without substratum is perfect,
Has given up views, hearsay, experiences and all other things,
Thoroughly knowing craving has become desireless and has crossd the floods."

9. Hemakamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Hemaka.

1084. Venerable Hemaka said:
"I was told that the dispensation of Gotama was for the next birth,
It is all gossip and logical thinking.

1085. I do not delight in that talk, may the sage declare the Teaching to destroy craving,
I knowing it will abide mindfully to overcome the attachments of the world"

1086. The Blessed One said:
"Hemaka, dispel interest and greed for all pleasant forms.
Seen, heard, experienced and cognized and realize extintion."

1087. Those who know this mindfully,are here and now extinguished
Crossed the attachments of the world are for ever appeased."

10. Todeyyamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Todeyya.

1088. Venerable Todeyya said:
"How is release to one who lives without sensual desires,
Does not crave, and has dispelled doubts"

1089. The Blessed One said:
" It is indeed release and nothing else, to him,
That lives without sensual desires, does not crave and has dispelled doubts

1090. Venerable Todeyya said:
"O! All Seeing One, is he without desires, or with desires,
Wise or acquiring wisdom, may this be explained".

1091. The Blessed One said:
"He is without desires, not with them. , wise, and not acquiring wisdom.
Todeyya learn the sage thus too, having nothing he is not attached to sensual ’being’"

11. Kappamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Kappa

1092. Venerable Kappa said:
"Venerable sir, to one standing in the middle, great fear arises of the floods,
To me overcome by birth and death may a light be shown, that is here and now"

1093. The Blessed One said:
"To one standing in the middle, great fear arises of the floods,
To you overcome by birth and death, I will show a light"

1094. The Blessed One said:
"Not having anything, do not seize, that is the light not another
I call it extinction with the destruction of birth and death.

1095. The mindful who know this are extinguished here and now
They are not in the sphere of Death, nor do they walk up to Death."

12. Jatukannamānavapucchā

Questions of the. young man Jatukanna.

1096. Venerable Jatukanna said:

"Hearing ṭhe hero’s words about the unsatisfactory nature of sensuality,

I came to know about it, may the Blessed One tell me the truth.

1097. "Like the resplendent sun that gives light to the earth

The Blessed One behaves sensuality overcome

I with little wisdom desire the Teaching to dispel birth and decay"

1098. The Blessed One said:

"Dispel greed for sensuality and experience the appeasement in giving up,

By seizing or by throwing about you do not win anything

1099. Dry up the earlier, later do not have anything,

Do not seize the middle, abide appeased.

1100. The brahmin who is free of greed for all name and matter,

Has no desires which Death could overcome."

13. Badrāvudhamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Badrāvudha

1101. Venerable Badrāvudha Said:

"I ask advice from the wise one to give up the household, to cut up craving,

To be firm, to give up interest, to cross the floods and be released.

Hearing the Great Man’s words I turn away from here.

1102. Hero, people come together from various states desire your words,

Therefore explain this Teaching as you know it."

1103. The Blessed One said:

"Badrāvudha, above, below, across or in the middle check all greedy seizings

Whenever people seize, Death follows them there

1104. Therefore the mindful bhikkhu should not cling to anything in the world

Seeing those seizing people under the power of Death."

14. Udayamānavapucchā.

Questions of the young man Udaya

1105. Venerable Udaya said:

"O! resplendent seated concentrator, who has done what should be done’

Is desireless, and gone beyond all things, we have a question to ask.

Tell the release with knowing, with the destruction of ignorance.

1106. The Blessed One said:

"Dispel sensual interest together with displeasure,

Throw out sloth and end doubts

1107 Purify mindfulness with equanimity and logically think about the Teaching

This is the relase knowing, to break up ignorance"

1108 Venerable Udaya said:

"What are the bonds in the world, and what are their behaviours,

And dispelling what does extinction come about"

1109. The Blessed One said:

"Interest is the bond in the world, and thoughts are the behaviours,

With the dispelling of craving, extinction comes about, I say."

1110. Venerable Udaya said:

"Behaving mindfully in which manner, is consciousness destroyed,

We came to hear the Blessd One’s words about this"

1111. The Blessed One said:

"Internally or externally do not entertain feelings.

Behaving mindfully thus consciousness is destroyed"

15. Posalamānavapucchā.

Questions of the young man Posala.

1112. "O! unwavering knower of past births with doubts destroyed,

We came to ask a question from you, who has gone beyond all things.

1113. Of one with destroyed perception of forms, who has given up the whole body .

And sees there is nothing, internally or externally, how is the knowledge led on,

O! king of gods explain this"

1114. The Blessed One said:

"O! Posala, the Thus Gone One knows all the stations of consciousness,

Knowing he stays there and is released there after.

1115. Born in the sphere of no-thingness, knows ’interest as the bond’

Knowing these thoroughly, reflects it there after

To the Perfected brahmin this is knowledge of the Truth.

16. Mogharājamanavapucchā

Questions of the young man Mogharājā.

1116. Venerable Mogharājā said:

"O! king of gods, I have two questions to ask, not answered by the wise one yet

I heard twenty two questions answered up to the third time

1117. O! famous Gotama, I do not know your views.

About this world, the next world, the world of Brahmā and the world of gods."

1118. O! seer of the good, we have a question to ask,

One looking at the world in which manner is not seen by the King of Death."

1119. The Blessed One said:

"Mogharājā, always mindfully look at the world as void.

Uproot the view about the self and overcome Death.

One looking at the world in this manner is not seen by Death"

17. Pingiyamānavapucchā

Questions of the young man Pingiya

1120. Venerable Pingiya said:

"I am decayed, weak and discoloured. My sight is weak and hearing difficult

It is dangerous to die deluded, preach the Teaching’

So that I may know and dispel birth and death."

1121. The Blessed One said:

"Look at the worries of matter, The negligent worry over matter,

Therefore Pingiya, be diligent to dispel matter to end rebirth."

1122. Venerable Pingiya said:

"In the four directions, inter directions above and below, there is nothing,

That you have not seen, heard, experienced or cognized,

So teach me, that I would know and end birth and decay".

1123. The Blessed One said:

"Pingiya, look at people overcome by craving decaying with anguish,

And be diligent to dispel craving to end rebirth."


The Blessed One preached this while living in the Pāsānaka monument in Magadha

The following of sixteen brahmins were given leave to pose their questions, all of which were explained. The explanation to a single question would be enough to know the meaning, the Teaching, and fall to the method to end birth and death and go beyond. Therefore ’Going Beyond’ is a synonym for this discourse.

1124. Ajita, Tissametteyya, Punnaka and Mettagu

Dotaka, Upasiiva, Nanda and Hemaka,

1125 Todeyya and Kappa, Jatukanni the wise one, brahmins Badrāvudha, Udaya, posala,

Wise Moghrājā and the great sage Pingiya.

1126. These sages endowed with good conduct approached

The Blessed One to ask clever questions

1127. The Blessed One answered all their questions

The brahmin sages were pleased with the explanations.

1128. Pleased with the wise one,

They led the holy life under him

1129. The explanation to a single question was enough

To come to the method, and go beyond

1130. To go from here to the beyond

They developed the path, so it is Going Beyond"

The Songs of those Gone Beyond

1131. Venerable Pingiya said

The pure wise one preached what he knew

The benefactor is free of sensuality and greed, why should he tell lies.

1132. Now I eulogize and praise him,

He has dispelled blemish, delusion, measuring and hypocrisy.

1133. The all seeing Enlightened One has dispelled darkness.

Has overcome all and gone to the end of the world.

Without desires has dispelled all unpleasantness.

Brahmā honour me, I tell the truth.

1134. Like the birds that leave the nest and go to the forest with much fruits

I give up my narrow view and widen like the swan reaching the ocean.

1135. Earlier I said, that the dispensation of Gotama was for the next birth

It’s all hearsay and developed logical talk.

1136. By birth he is the sun who dispelled darkness seated alone,

Gotama’s wisdom is wide like the earth.

1137. He preached for the destruction of craving here and now, and for mental well being,

For him, there is no compare.

1138. Pingiya, why do you live away from him even for a moment

He is wise like the earth.

1139. He taught the healthy state of destroyed craving here and now,

And has no compare.

1140. Not that I live away from him.

He is wise like the earth.

1141. He taught the healthy state of destroyed craving here and now

And has no compare.

1142. In my mind’s eye, I see the diligent brahmin day and night,

Throughout the night I worship him, I think I’m near him in that manner.

1143. I do not see, faith,,joy, and mindfulness outside the dispensation of Gotama,

In whatever direction the wise one is, in that direction I’m bent.

1144. My decayed and disabled body does not turn in that direction.

. My mind and thoughts are constantly engaged there.

1145. Submerged in the mud crying I was landing and floating in turns,

Then I saw the Enlightened One who had crossed over.

1146. As Vakkali, Bhadrāvudha and Alavi Gotama were released,

Pingiya, you too attain release through faith, and go beyond the domains of death.

1147. "I am very much pleased, hearing the words of the sage.

The Enlightened One has revealed, the arrow pulled out state.

1148. Knowing the highest gods, he taught for the here and hereafter,

The Teacher put an end to the doubts of the learned.

1149. I’m immovable and firm, I have no doubts.

Know me as one released in mind."